# Is Gambling an Addiction and Is There a Cure?

While we label many behaviors as addictive, there is only one non-substance related type that is considered a disorder in the DSM. That disorder is Gambling addiction. The designation and opinions about gambling disorder vary greatly among people as well. While heroin use is an activity almost everyone would consider a clear sign of abuse, scratch-off tickets, or even a high-stakes bet, don’t carry the same stigma.

FHE Health has conducted a large survey on opinions and experiences around gambling. Take our quiz to see where you rank among the general consensus, the results may surprise you!

We surveyed 300 respondents with 36 questions regarding their opinions on gambling, their gambling experiences, and their demographics. Answer some of the same questions they did to see how your experiences and opinions compare to our surveyed audience.

How much experience do you have with gambling?
Our Results
Of our 300 respondents...
• 1.67% consider themselves as having None Gambling Experience
• 22.33% consider themselves as having Very Little Gambling Experience
• 49.33% consider themselves as having Some Gambling Experience
• 23% consider themselves as having A lot of Gambling Experience
• 3.33% consider themselves as an Expert in Gambling Experience
Which of the Following Do You Consider Gambling?

Our Results
Of our 300 respondents...

• 86% consider Casino Games 'Gambling'
• 65% consider Fixed-odd Games 'Gambling'
• 28% consider Games with 'lootbox' mechanics 'Gambling'
• 49% consider Non-casino games with a prize, such as card games, dice and carnival games 'Gambling'
• 61% consider Online Poker 'Gambling'
• 50% Consider virtual sports such as fantasy leagues 'Gambling'
What is the most you have lost in one sitting?

Our Results
Of our 300 respondents...

• 2% responded none
• 43% responded Under $50 • 32% responded$50-$200 • 16% responded$200-500
• 21% responded over $500 If you had to estimate the impact of gambling on your finances... Our Results Of our 300 respondents... • 28% responded Made Money • 33% responded Less than$100
• 21% responded $100-500 • 7% responded$500-1000
• 8% responded over $1000 How many people would you guess gamble each year in the U.S.? How many people would you guess suffer from compulsive gambling in the U.S.? Over 80% of people in the U.S. gamble each year, according to the National Center for Responsible Gaming. From the North American Foundation for Gambling Addiction Help, they state that 2.6% of the population has an addiction problem because of gambling. http://nafgah.org/statistics-gambling-addiction-2016. The NCRG states the number at approximately 1% of the adult population for 'pathological gambling'. The perception of how many people compulsively gamble is actually much higher with 70% of our respondents guessing it is higher than 3%. While people percieve gambling addiction is much higher than it is, they underestimate how many people gamble each year with 86% guessing it was lower than it's actual amount, 80%. How Often Do You Gamble? Our Results Of our 300 respondents... 7% responded Never 69% responded Less than once a month 16% responded Once a Week 6% responded More than Once a Week Do You Consider Gambling an Addiction? Compared to substance abuse, do you consider gambling an addiction? Our Results Of our 300 respondents... When asked if they consider gambling an addiction 25% do not consider gambling an addiction • 75% consider gambling an addiction Asked differently, when compared to substance abuse, respondents said: • 9% Yes, it's more severe than substance abuse • 46% Yes, but it's not as serious as substance abuse • 27% Yes (no comment) • 15% No Many respondents answers 'No' when given a yes/no option if gambling was an addiction, but when given the ability to qualify it as 'not as serious' as addiction, they opted to label it an addiction. Thanks for interacting with our results! See more data from this survey on the rest of this page, and if you have a specific data-point you'd like to learn more about, let us know! ### Our Survey Results Demographics of Audience Age • 18-25: 17% • 26-35: 39% • 36-45: 20% • 45+: 22% Sex • Female: 43% • Male: 54% Opinions on Gambling What people consider Gambling: • Casino Games: 89% • Fixed-odds Bettings (sports events & horse races): 67% • Virtual Sports such as ‘fantasy leagues: 30% • Non-casino games, such as cards, dice and carnival games: 51% • Online Poker: 64% • Games involving ‘lootbox’ mechanics: 52% Do you consider Gambling an addiction? • Yes: 75% • No: 24% Do you consider the lottery or scratch-off tickets gambling? • Yes: 83% • No: 16% Compared to Substance Abuse, do you think gambling is an addiction? • Yes, it’s more serious than substance abuse: 9% • Yes, but not as serious as substance abuse: 46% • Yes (no comment): 27% • No: 15% Overall opinion of gambling: • No Opinion: 12% • Very Negative: 9% • Negative: 32% • Positive: 40% • Very Positive: 5% Experience with Gambling What amount of gambling experience would you say you have? • None: 1% • Very Little: 22% • Some: 49% • A lot: 23% • Expert: 3% When was your first time gambling: • Under 18: 9% • 18-25: 68% • 26-35: 15% • 36-45: 5% • 45+: 1% How often do you gamble? • Never: 7% • Less than once a month: 69% • Once a week: 49% • More than once a week: 6% What would you say the estimated financial impact of gambling has been on you? • I’ve made money: 28% • I’ve lost less than$100: 33%
• I’ve lost between $100 and$500: 21%
• I’ve lost between $500-1000: 7% • I’ve lost over$1000: 8%

What have been your worst losses in one sitting?

• None: 2%
• Under $50: 44% • Between$50 and 200: 33%
• Between $200 and$500: 11%
• Over \$500: 8%

## The Difference Between Problem Gamblers and Pathological Gambling

According to FHE Health and compulsive gambling specialist Susan Naversen, MS, AP-DOM, “Gambling addiction is the first non-substance to be included as an addiction in the DSM-5. The DSM-5 is what mental health professionals and insurance companies use as a guide when officially diagnosing psychological disorders such as behavioral addiction.”

Mental health professionals recognize four types of gambling: social, problem, pathological and professional. Most people are social gamblers. They may gamble once or twice a year for fun, usually with family or friends, and remain cognizant of how much they spend on gambling.

Professional gamblers typically live in Las Vegas or visit Las Vegas frequently. They rely on gambling as a way to make a living.

In addition, professional gamblers understand that casinos rig their games in favor of the house. Consequently, they spend years learning the “science” of gambling and the trick of counting to increase their chances of big payouts.

Problem or compulsive gamblers are often in the early stages of developing a full-blown gambling addiction. A problem gambler is overly preoccupied with gambling and may deliberately try to resist the urge to gamble. Although problem gamblers haven’t experienced the financial and relationship consequences indicative of pathological gambling, they may begin suffering these consequences unless they seek treatment.

Pathological gamblers are addicted to gambling much the same way a drug addict is addicted to heroin or methamphetamines. People with a gambling addiction engage in distorted thinking patterns, such as superstitions, delusions and denial. Other characteristics of a pathological gambler include:

• Believing that money will solve all their problems (“If I could win a lot of money, everybody would like me again and my life would be perfect.”)
• Being extremely restless, competitive and sometimes manic in behavior. Gambling addicts are easily bored and do not feel pleasure in doing anything but gambling.
• Refusing to talk about gambling activities or denying they have a gambling problem
• Gambling away money meant for bills, medical expenses, food and so on
• Blaming others for their financial problems

Some gambling addicts may develop an alcohol abuse disorder or become addicted to stimulants such as cocaine or Adderall. Or a person with a substance addiction may turn to gambling as a way to get money to buy drugs.

Psychologists recognize specific factors that could increase the risk of someone becoming addicted to gambling:

• Having ADHD or a personality disorder, especially borderline or impulsive personality disorders
• Being a male between the ages of 30 and 50
• Having family members with a gambling addiction; gambling addiction may have a genetic component
• Experiencing financial difficulties such as getting laid off or fired, paying child support after divorce
• Losing a lot of money while gambling once or twice and feeling desperate about winning the money back
• Associating self-esteem and sense of identity with gambling wins
• Having been traumatized or abused as a child
• Being overwhelmed by feelings of anxiety, depression and a sense of meaninglessness in life

When gambling addicts enter a casino, their brains experience the same kind of rush felt by the brain of a drug addict who has just snorted a line of cocaine or injected heroin. Gambling activates the prefrontal cortex, responsible cognitive control and regulating impulsivity and decision-making, and the ventral striatum, which is the reward center, in the brain, two areas heavily implicated in substance addiction.

Just thinking about hitting a blackjack or craps table floods the brain of a gambling addict with neurotransmitters involved in feeling pleasure and reward. Dopamine, serotonin and adrenaline are the primary brain chemicals contributing to the development of any addiction.

When a pathological gambler wins, these neurotransmitters inundate the ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex. Whether pathological gamblers win or lose, they still feel an overwhelming craving to return to the casino and get their fix.

## The Gambler’s Fallacy

Pathological gamblers often astonish family members and friends with their unwavering belief in the gambler’s fallacy. This is a false belief pattern involving the assumption that a series of random events can predict future events.

For example, pathological gamblers may firmly believe that after losing 10 hands of poker, they have to win the next hand, or the next hand and so on. The gambling addict may say something like, “How many times can a person lose? It’s against the odds that I’d keep losing, right? I just know I’m gonna win the next hand.”

## How to Overcome a Gambling Addiction

The answer to the question, “how to cure a gambling addiction” is this: there is no cure for a gambling addiction. Instead, compulsive gambling must be addressed the same way as a substance addiction.

Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction that requires intense counseling, cognitive behavioral therapy and, in some cases, medications to help reduce depression and anxiety. Cognitive behavioral therapy focuses on correcting false belief systems, developing coping skills to control gambling cravings and learning to recognize negative thought patterns that contribute to a gambling addiction.

CBT therapists teach compulsive gamblers the following concepts regarding their behavioral compulsion:

• Learning how to use self-monitoring skills that can help them deal with relapse-causing triggers, for example, driving by a casino or seeing a pair of dice
• Accepting and coping rationally with uncomfortable situations without allowing compulsions and irrational thoughts to distort the reality of the situation
• Understanding that behavioral and emotional reactions to stress are learned or habitual and can successfully be unlearned.

CBT also addresses personality and mental health disorders common to gambling addicts. Therapists may use other forms of psychotherapy, motivational interviewing techniques and holistic methods when treating a gambling addiction.

## Compulsive Gambling Increasing in Older Women

Appearing on the Joyce Kaufman Show on 850 WFTL, Susan Naversen of BHOPB talked about the rising number of women in their 50s, 60s and 70s who have gambling addictions. According to Naverson, “Problem gambling among older women has increased since 2011 by 60%.” Consequences of older women developing a gambling addiction include loss of income, especially Social Security or pensions, and family estrangement. Reasons why older women (and men) may become addicted to gambling include loneliness after a spouse has died, financial instability, depression and onset of dementia.